Humayun died in 1556, and his widow Hamida Banu Begam, also known as Haji Begam, commenced the construction of his tomb in 1569, fourteen years after his death. It is the first distinct example of proper Mughal style, which was inspired by Persian architecture. It is well known that Humayun picked up the principles of Persian architecture during his exile, and he himself is likely to have planned the tomb, although there is no record to that effect. The tomb was constructed at a cost of 15 lakh rupees (1.5 million).
The last refuge of Mughal Emperor Humayun reminds rather of a luxurious palace, than a tomb.
Located in the eastern part of Dehli, Humayun’s tomb is one of the best preserved Mughal monuments. This spellbinding mausoleum is the first example of Mughal architecture in India.
After a century from its construction Humayun’s tomb inspired the construction of the more famous Taj Mahal.
From the point of view of the history of architecture this building is the unique connecting link between the Gur Emir, where Humayun’s ancestor Tamerlane is buried, and the mausoleum of his grandson Shah Jahan, i.e. Taj Mahal.
Humayun’s tomb was built thanks to the initiative of his widow Hamida Banu Begum, who commenced the construction of a mausoleum for her deceased husband in 1565, nine years after his death. The construction was finished in 1572.
The architecture of the tomb is strongly influenced by Persian architecture. The architect of the building Mirak Mirza Ghiyas himself was of Persian origin. Ghiyas constructed the tomb in the center of a Persian-style chaharbagh garden (translated from Farsi – four gardens) with quadrilateral form. The garden, divided in four main parts by walkways or flowing water is created to resemble the paradise garden described in the Quran. These four main parts on their turn are separated by channels to 36 parts.
From the 17th to the 19th centuries the garden was gradually filled with the tombs of Humayun’s descendants and his entourage. Several Mughal emperors are even buried inside Humayun’s mausoleum. Humayun’s mausoleum has earned the title of necropolis of the Mughal dynasty. No sepulcher in India or elsewhere contains such a high number of tombs of the Mughal emperors and their relatives. Moreover, Humayun’s tomb is the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent.
The mausoleum stands on a massive platform which has a height of up to 7 meters. The building is constructed from red sandstone, while the tomb itself is made of yellow and black marble. The two-storied mausoleum is crowned with white Persian style marble dome that seems weightless and imponderable. The height of Humayun’s Tomb is 47 meters, and its breadth is 91 meters.
The lower tier of this rectangular construction is decorated with graceful arches, which are located around the whole perimeter of the building.
The cenotaph of the ruler is located in the center of the upper tier in a large room decorated with several rows of arched windows.
The central chamber is octagonal with corner-chambers which house the graves of other members of the royal family. The real grave of the emperor is on the basement floor.
The architecture of the mausoleum has details both from Persian architecture and Indian architectural traditions.
The Persian influence can be seen in the arched alcoves, corridors and the high double dome, while Indian traditions have inspired the creation of the kiosks, which give it a pyramidal outline from distance.